Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis
                                 #12 cause of death in 2005

Chronic liver disease is marked by the gradual destruction of liver tissue over time. Several liver diseases fall under this
category, including:
  • cirrhosis of the liver
  • fibrosis of the liver
Cirrhosis --- according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). Because of
chronic damage to the liver, scar tissue slowly replaces normal functioning liver tissue, progressively diminishing blood
flow through the liver. As the normal liver tissue is lost, nutrients, hormones, drugs and poisons are not processed
effectively by the liver. In addition, protein production and other substances produced by the liver are inhibited.

Below are links to few disease causing microorganisms studies show cause Liver disease as well as
Inorganic Chemical Contaminants, Synthetic Organic Contaminants,  including pesticides & herbicides and
Volatile Organic Contaminants

EPA acknowledged in 1995 that it did not include these microorganisms or chemicals in the
risk assessment
for the final Part 503 sludge biosolids policy regulation.

If the liver becomes inflamed or infected, its ability to perform these functions may be impaired. Liver disease and
infections are caused by a variety of conditions including
viral infections, bacterial invasion, and chemical or physical
changes within the body. The most common cause of liver damage is malnutrition, especially that which occurs with
alcoholism.

Symptoms of liver disease may be acute, occurring suddenly, or chronic, developing slowly over a long period of time.
Chronic liver disease is much more common than acute. The rates of chronic liver disease for men are two times higher
than for women. Liver disease may range from mild to severe depending on the type of disease present.
http://uimc.discoveryhospital.com/main.php?id=3307


8.    Coxsackieviruses ----------------------------------- Infectious Hepatitis  
Meningitis. minor flu-like illness without jaundice, may lead to profound anorexia, malaise, nausea and vomiting, and,
often, fever  or right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Urticaria and arthralgias occasionally occur, urine darkens,
followed by  jaundice (the icteric phase), liver is usually enlarged and tender, but the edge of the liver remains soft and
smooth.  Mild splenomegaly occurs in 15 to 20% of patients. liver diseases, from a subclinical carrier state to severe or
fulminant  acute hepatitis, particularly in the elderly, in whom mortality can reach 10 to 15%. Hepatocellular carcinoma
can  ultimately develop in chronic HBV [Hepatitis B] infection, even without being preceded by cirrhosis. chronic hepatitis
is  usually asymptomatic or benign
but progresses to cirrhosis in 20 to 30% of patients; cirrhosis often takes
decades to  appear
. Hepatocellular carcinoma can result from HCV [Hepatitis C] -induced cirrhosis.  (Merck)


Inorganic Chemical Contaminants


Cadmium
Short-term:
EPA has found cadmium to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at
levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle cramps, salivation, sensory
disturbances,
liver injury, convulsions, shock and renal failure.

Long-term: Cadmium has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL:
kidney,
liver, bone and blood damage

Chromium
Long-term:
Chromium has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL:
damage to liver, kidney circulatory and nerve tissues; skin irritation

Copper
Use of water that exceeds the Action Level over many years could cause liver or kidney damage. People with Wilsons
disease may be more sensitive than others to the effect of copper contamination and should consult their health care
provide

Selenium
EPA has found selenium to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at levels above
the MCL for relatively short  periods of time:  Long-term: Selenium has the potential to cause the following effects from a
lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL: hair and fingernail loss; damage to kidney
and liver tissue, and the
nervous and circulatory systems

Thallium
Long-term
: Thallium has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL:
changes in blood chemistry;
damage to liver, kidney, intestinal and testicular tissues; hair loss.

Synthetic Organic Contaminants,  including pesticides & herbicides

2,4-D
Long-te
rm: 2,4-D has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL:
damage to the nervous system, kidneys and liver.

2,4,5-TP (Silvex)
Short-term:
EPA has found 2,4,5-TP to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at
levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: depression and other nervous system effects, weakness,
stomach irritation and minor damage to liver and kidneys.
Long-term: 2,4,5-TP has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL:
minor liver and kidney damage
.

Alachlor
Long-term:
Alachlor has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL:
damage to liver, kidney, spleen; lining of nose and eyelids; cancer.

Chlordane
Long-term:
Chlordane has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL:
damage to liver, kidneys, heart, lungs, spleen and adrenal glands; cancer.

Di 2-ethylhexyl adipate
Long-term:
Adipate has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL:
reduced body weight and bone mass; damage to liver and testes; cancer.

Di 2-ethylhexyl phthalate
Long-term:
Phthalate has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL:
damage to liver and testes; reproductive effects; cancer.

Dibromochloropropane
Short-term:
EPA has found DBCP to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at
levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: kidney and liver damage and atrophy of the testes.

Dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD)
Short-term:
EPA has found dioxin to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at
levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: liver damage, weight loss, wasting of glands important to the
body's immune system.

Endrin
Long-term:
Endrin has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL:
convulsions and
damage to liver tissue.

Epichlorohydrin
Short-term:
EPA has found epichlorohydrin to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed
to it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: skin irritation;
detrimental effects on liver, kidneys,
central nervous system.

Ethylene dibromide
Long-term:
EDB has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL:
damage to the respiratory system, nervous system, liver, heart, and kidneys; cancer.

Heptachlor
Short-term:
EPA has found heptachlor and its epoxide to potentially cause the following health effects when people
are exposed to it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time:
liver and central nervous system
damage.
Long-term: Heptachlor and its epoxide have the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at
levels above the MCL:
extensive liver damage; cancer.

Heptachlor epoxide
Short-term:
EPA has found heptachlor and its epoxide to potentially cause the following health effects when people  
are exposed to it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time:
liver and central nervous system  damage.
Long-term: Heptachlor and its epoxide have the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at  
levels above the MCL:
extensive liver damage; cancer.

Hexachlorobenzene   
Short-term: EPA has found HCB to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at  
levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: skin lesions, nerve and
liver damage.  
Long-term: HCB has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL:  
damage to liver and kidneys; reproductive effects; benign tumors of endocrine glands; cancer.

Hexachlorocyclopentadiene
Short-term:
EPA has found HEX to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at
levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: gastrointestinal distress;
damage to liver, kidneys and
heart.

Lindane
Long-term: Lindane has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the  MCL:
liver and kidney damage.

Methoxychlor   
Short-term: EPA has found methoxychlor to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed  to
it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: central nervous system depression, diarrhea, and  
damage to liver, kidney and heart tissue.
Long-term: Methoxychlor has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above  the
MCL:
damage to liver, kidney and heart tissue; retards growth.


PCBs [Polychlorinated biphenyls]   
Long-term:
PCBs has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL:  
effects similar to acute poisonings; irritation of nose, throat and gastrointestinal tracts;
changes in liver function;  
cancer.

Pentachlorophenol   
Long-term:
Pentachlorophenol has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels  above
the MCL: reproductive effects and
damage to liver and kidneys; cancer.

Picloram   
Long-term:
Picloram has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the  MCL:
liver damage

Simazine
Long-term:
Simazine has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the
MCL: tremors; damage to testes, kidneys,
liver and thyroid; gene mutations; cancer.

Toxaphene  
Long-term:
Toxaphene has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the
MCL:
liver and kidney degeneration; central nervous system effects; possible immune system suppression; cancer.


Volatile Organic Contaminants


Carbon Tetrachloride
Short-term:
EPA has found carbon tetrachloride to potentially cause the following health effects when people are  
exposed to it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time:
liver, kidney and lung damage.  
Long-term: Carbon tetrachloride has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels  
above the MCL:
liver damage; cancer.

Chlorobenzene  
Short-term:
EPA has found chlorobenzene to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed
to it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: anesthetic effects and
impaired liver and kidney
function.
Long-term: Chlorobenzene has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above
the MCL:
liver, kidney and central nervous system damage.

o-Dichlorobenzene
Long-term:
o-DCB has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL:
damage to the nervous system,
liver, kidneys and blood cells.

p-Dichlorobenzene
Long-term: p-DCB has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL:
anemia, skin lesions, appetite loss,
damage to liver and changes in blood.

1,1-Dichloroethylene
Short-term:
EPA has found 1,1-DCE to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at
levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time:
liver damage.
Long-term:
1,1-DCE has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the
MCL:
liver and kidney damage, as well as toxicity to the developing fetus; cancer.


cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene
Long-term:
Both cis- and trans-1,2-DCE have the potential to cause liver, circulatory and nervous system damage  
from long-term exposure at levels above the MCL.

Dichloromethane
Long-term:
Dichloromethane has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above  
the MCL:
liver damage; cancer.

1,2-Dichloroethane
Short-term: EPA has found 1,2-dichloroethane to potentially cause the following health effects when people are  
exposed to it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: central nervous system disorders, and  
adverse lung, kidney,
liver circulatory and gastrointestinal effects.  

Ethylbenzene
Long-term:
Ethylbenzene has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the  
MCL:
damage to the liver, kidneys, central nervous system and eyes.

Styrene
Long-term:
Styrene has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL:
liver and nerve tissue damage; cancer

Tetrachloroethylene
Some people who drink water containing tetrachloroethylene in excess of the MCL over many years could have
problems with their liver and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.

1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene
Short-term:
EPA has found 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene to potentially cause the following health effects when people are  
exposed to it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time:
changes in liver, kidneys and adrenal glands

1,1,1,-Trichloroethane  
Short-term:
EPA has found 1,1,1-TCA to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it
at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time:
damage to the liver, nervous system and circulatory
system.
Long-term: 1,1,1-TCA has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the
MCL:
liver, nervous system and circulatory system damage

1,1,2-Trichloroethane
Short-term:
EPA has found 1,1,2-TCE to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it
at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: irritation of gastrointestinal tract; red or hemorrhaged
lungs;
pale liver.
Long-term:
1,1,2-TCE has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the
MCL:
damage to liver and kidneys; cancer.

Toluene
Long-term:
Toluene has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL:  
more pronounced nervous disorders such as spasms, tremors, impairment of speech, hearing, vision, memory,  
coordination;
liver and kidney damage.

Vinyl Chloride
Long-term:
Vinyl chloride has the potential to cause cancer and may damage the liver following a lifetime exposure
at  levels above 0.1 mg/L.

Xylenes  
Long-term:
Xylenes has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL:
damage to the central nervous system,
liver and kidneys.

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