DESCRIPTION OF Health and Environmental Effects
RCRA
(5) The term ``hazardous waste'' means a solid waste, or combination of solid
wastes, which because of its quantity, concentration, or physical, chemical, or
infectious characteristics may--
(A) cause, or significantly contribute to an increase in mortality or an increase
in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible, illness; or
(B) pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the
environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, or disposed of, or
otherwise managed.



CWA

(13) The term ``toxic pollutant'' means those pollutants, or combinations of
pollutants, including  disease-causing agents, which after discharge and upon
exposure, ingestion, inhalation or assimilation into any organism, either directly
from the environment or indirectly by ingestion through food chains, will, on the
basis of information available to the Administrator, cause death, disease,
behavioral abnormalities, cancer, genetic mutations, physiological malfunctions
(including malfunctions in reproduction) or physical deformations, in such
organisms or their offspring


CECRLA (Superfund Act)

(33) The term “pollutant or contaminant” shall include, but not be limited to, any
element, substance, compound, or mixture, including disease-causing agents,
which after release into the environment and upon exposure, ingestion,
inhalation, or assimilation into any organism, either directly from the
environment or indirectly by ingestion through food chains, will or may
reasonably be anticipated to cause death, disease, behavioral abnormalities,
cancer, genetic mutation, physiological malfunctions (including malfunctions in
reproduction) or physical deformations, in such organisms or their offspring;
except that the term “pollutant or contaminant” shall not include petroleum,
including crude oil or any fraction thereof which is not otherwise specifically
listed or designated as a hazardous substance under subparagraphs (A)
through (F) of paragraph (14) and shall not include natural gas, liquefied
natural gas, or synthetic gas of pipeline quality (or mixtures of natural gas and
such synthetic gas).


Clean Air Act (CAA)
(g) The term ``air pollutant'' means any air pollution agent or
combination of such agents, including any physical, chemical,
biological, radioactive (including source material, special nuclear
material, and byproduct material) substance or matter which is emitted
into or otherwise enters the ambient air. Such term includes any
precursors to the formation of any air pollutant, to the extent the
Administrator has identified such precursor or precursors for the
particular purpose for which the term ``air pollutant'' is used.

What are the health and environmental effects of toxic air pollutants?
People exposed to toxic air pollutants at sufficient concentrations and durations
may have an increased chance of getting cancer or experiencing other serious
health effects. These health effects can include damage to the immune
system, as well as neurological, reproductive (e.g., reduced fertility),
developmental, respiratory and other health problems. In addition to exposure
from breathing air toxics, some toxic air pollutants such as mercury can deposit
onto soils or surface waters, where they are taken up by plants and ingested by
animals and are eventually magnified up through the food chain. Like humans,
animals may experience health problems if exposed to sufficient quantities of air
toxics over time.


OSHA

Health hazard means a chemical, mixture of chemicals or a pathogen for which
there is statistically significant evidence based on at least one study conducted
in accordance with established scientific principles that acute or chronic health
effects may occur in exposed employees. The term "health hazard" includes
chemicals which are carcinogens, toxic or highly toxic agents, reproductive
toxins, irritants, corrosives, sensitizers, hepatotoxins, nephrotoxins, neurotoxins,
agents which act on the hematopoietic system, and agents which damage the
lungs, skin, eyes, or mucous membranes. It also includes stress due to
temperature extremes. Further definition of the terms used above can be found
in Appendix A to 29 CFR 1910.1200.

1910.120(b)(1)(i)
Employers shall develop and implement a written safety and health program for
their employees involved in hazardous waste operations. The program shall be
designed to identify, evaluate, and control safety and health hazards, and
provide for emergency response for hazardous waste operations.




258 Sludge Co-disposal landfill
(c) When approving a design that complies with paragraph (a)(1) of this
section, the Director of an approved State shall consider at least the following
factors:
(6) The existing quality of the ground water, including other sources of
contamination and their cumulative impacts on the ground water, and whether
the ground water is currently used or reasonably expected to be used for
drinking water;
(7) Public health, safety, and welfare effects; and
                                                             MCL/mg/l -- 1,000 grams
Arsenic.......................................................   0.05
Cadmium.......................................................0.01
Chromium
(hexavalent).................................0.05
Lead..........................................................   0.05
Mercury....................................................... 0.002
Selenium..................................................... 0.01
Silver........................................................    0.05

503.9(t) pollutant
(t) Pollutant is an organic substance, an inorganic substance, a combination of
organic and inorganic substances, or a pathogenic organism that, after
discharge and upon exposure, ingestion, inhalation, or assimilation into an
organism either directly from the environment or indirectly by ingestion through
the food chain, could, on the basis of information available to the Administrator
of EPA, cause death, disease, behavioral abnormalities, cancer, genetic
mutations, physiological malfunctions (including malfunction in
reproduction), or physical deformations in either organisms or offspring of the
organisms.

EPA admits there has never been a
cancer risk assessment for the pollutants in
sludge biosolids.

EPA admits there are
cancer causing agents in sludge biosolids.
Sludge DESCRIPTIONS
(26A) The term ``sludge'' means any solid, semisolid or liquid waste generated from a
municipal, commercial, or industrial wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment
plant, or air pollution control facility or any other such waste having similar characteristics and
effects.
(27) The term ``solid waste'' means any garbage, refuse, sludge from a waste treatment
plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility and other discarded
material, including solid, liquid, semisolid, or contained gaseous material resulting from
industrial, commercial, mining, and agricultural operations, and from community activities,
but does not include solid or dissolved material in domestic sewage, [in pipeline] or
solid or dissolved materials in irrigation return flows or industrial discharges which are point
sources subject to permits undersection 1342 of title 33, or source, special nuclear, or
byproduct material as defined by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (68 Stat. 923)
[42 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.].

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6) The term ``pollutant'' means dredged spoil, solid waste, incinerator residue, sewage,
garbage, sewage sludge, munitions, chemical wastes, biological materials, radioactive
materials, heat, wrecked or discarded equipment, rock, sand, cellar dirt and industrial,
municipal, and agricultural waste discharged into water.





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http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/42/usc_sec_42_00006903----000-.html
(29) The terms “disposal”, “hazardous waste”, and “treatment” shall have the meaning
provided in section 1004 of the
Solid Waste Disposal Act [42 U.S.C. 6903].
14) The term “hazardous substance” means
(A) any substance designated pursuant to section 311(b)(2)(A) of the Federal Water Pollution
Control Act [33 U.S.C. 1321 (b)(2)(A)],
(B) any element, compound, mixture, solution, or substance designated pursuant to section
9602 of this title,
(C) any hazardous waste having the characteristics identified under or listed pursuant to
section 3001 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act [42 U.S.C. 6921] (but not including any waste
the regulation of which under the Solid Waste Disposal Act [42 U.S.C. 6901 et seq.] has been
suspended by Act of Congress),
(D) any toxic pollutant listed under section 307(a) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act
[33 U.S.C. 1317 (a)],
(E) any hazardous air pollutant listed under section 112 of the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7412],
and
(F) any imminently hazardous chemical substance or mixture with respect to which the
Administrator has taken action pursuant to section 7 of the Toxic Substances Control Act [15
U.S.C. 2606].
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What are toxic air pollutants?
Toxic air pollutants, also known as hazardous air pollutants, are those pollutants that are
known or suspected to cause cancer or other serious health effects, such as reproductive
effects or birth defects, or adverse environmental effects. EPA is working with state, local, and
tribal governments to reduce air toxics releases of 188 pollutants to the environment.
Examples of toxic air pollutants include benzene, which is found in gasoline;
perchlorethlyene, which is emitted from some dry cleaning facilities; and methylene chloride,
which is used as a solvent and paint stripper by a number of industries. Examples of other
listed air toxics include dioxin, asbestos, toluene, and metals such as cadmium, mercury,
chromium, and lead compounds.
Antimony Compounds,   Arsenic Compounds (inorganic including arsine),   Beryllium
Compounds,  Cadmium Compounds,   Chromium Compounds, Cobalt Compounds,
Cyanide Compounds,  Lead Compounds,  Manganese Compounds,  Mercury Compounds,
Nickel Compounds,  Polycylic Organic Matter, Radionuclides (including radon) ,
Selenium Compounds.

Airborne aerosols: pathogens, Toxins, chemicals and metals (pollutants) in  
SLUDGE/BIOSOLIDS

Acetonitrile is metabolized in the body to hydrogen cyanide and   thiocyanate; these
chemicals are thought to be responsible for the   adverse effects of acetonitrile.



---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

OSHA ON SLUDGE AS A HAZARDOUS WASTE IN THE WORK PLACE -- 2008


Hazardous substance means any substance designated or listed under (A) through (D) of
this definition, exposure to which results or may result in adverse effects on the health or
safety of employees:
[A] Any substance defined under section 101(14) of CERCLA;
[B] Any biologic agent and other disease causing agent which after release into the
environment and upon exposure, ingestion, inhalation, or assimilation into any person, either
directly from the environment or indirectly by ingestion through food chains, will or may
reasonably be anticipated to cause death, disease, behavioral abnormalities, cancer, genetic
mutation, physiological malfunctions (including malfunctions in reproduction) or physical
deformations in such persons or their offspring.
[C] Any substance listed by the U.S. Department of Transportation as hazardous materials
under 49 CFR 172.101 and appendices; and
[D] Hazardous waste as herein defined.
Hazardous waste means --
[A] A waste or combination of wastes as defined in
40 CFR 261.3, or
[B] Those substances defined as hazardous wastes in
49 CFR 171.8.
Infectious substance (etiologic agent). See § 173.134 of this subchapter.
Biological product. See §
173.134 of this subchapter.


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Sludge means any solid, semi-solid, or liquid waste generated from a municipal,
commercial, or industrial wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air
pollution control facility exclusive of the treated effluent from a wastewater treatment plant.

Solid waste means any garbage, or refuse, sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, water
supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility and other discarded material, including
solid, liquid, semi-solid, or contained gaseous material resulting from industrial,
commercial, mining, and agricultural operations, and from community activities, but does not
include solid or dissolved materials in domestic sewage, or solid or dissolved materials in
irrigation return flows or industrial discharges that are point sources subject to permit under
33 U.S.C. 1342, or source, special nuclear, or by-product material as defined by the Atomic
Energy Act of 1954, as amended (68 Stat. 923).

258-apx1.html   62 chemicals for detection monitoring under the real sludge regulation
258-apxII.html  220 hazardous chemicals of concern in the real sludge regulation.




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NON-PROTECTIVE PART 503 -  IT FORGOT TO MENTION HOSPITAL & INDUSTRIAL WASTE
g)
Domestic sewage is waste and wastewater from humans or household operations that is
discharged to or otherwise enters a treatment works. NO BIOSOLIDS HERE

w) Sewage sludge is solid, semi-solid, or liquid residue generated during the treatment of
domestic sewage in a treatment works. Sewage sludge includes, but is not limited to,
domestic septage; scum or solids removed in primary, secondary, or advanced wastewater
treatment processes; and
a material derived from sewage sludge. Sewage sludge does not
include ash generated during the firing of sewage sludge in a sewage sludge incinerator or
grit and screenings generated during preliminary treatment of
domestic sewage in a treatment works.

Do you think EPA's perspective  might have got turned around? EPA/WEF seems to have
become confused about the terms applied to and placed on. As an example, there is no limit
on Chromium applied to the land, but it is severely restricted when placed on a disposal site.

503.13 land application
POLLUTANT limit mg/kg --1,000 grams
Arsenic..................................................            75
Cadmium..................................................          85
Copper...................................................         4300
Lead.....................................................             840
Mercury..................................................            57
Molybdenum...............................................          75
Nickel...................................................             420
Selenium.................................................          100
Zinc.....................................................             7500
                       LAWS AND REGULATIONS TO PROTECT HUMAN HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT
There is no federal law or regulation that can justify exposing the public to pollutants in sludge biosolids
503.23 surface disposal
POLLUTANT limit mg/kg
Arsenic..........................................              73   
Chromium....................................             600
Nickel.............................................            420