Cerebrovascular diseases
                         # 3. cause of death in 2005

Cerebrovascular diseases include some of the most common and devastating disorders: ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic
stroke, and cerebrovascular anomalies such as intracranial aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). They
cause 200,000 deaths each year in the United States and are a major cause of disability. The incidence of
cerebrovascular diseases increases with age, and the number of strokes is projected to increase as the elderly
population grows, with a doubling in stroke deaths in the United States by 2030.

Below are a few disease causing microorganisms studies show cause Cerebrovascular disease as well as
Inorganic Chemical Contaminants, Synthetic Organic Contaminants,  including pesticides & herbicides and
Volatile Organic Contaminants

15 microorganisms are listed by EPA as
primary pathogens in sludge biosolids.
7 microorganisms are
coliform which EPA claims do not cause disease.
Many bacteria also cause
necrotizing infections -- flesh eating bacteria

Bacteria
1. Achromobacter -- meningitis
2.
Acinetobacter -- meningitis
3.
Actinobacillus -- meningitis
4.  
Bacillus cereus -- Necrotizing infection of the meninges
5.
Campylobacter jejuni --meningitis
    EPA lists as Primary Pathogen in sludge biosolids
6. Citrobacter -- infant meningitis -- adult urinary tract infections (coliform)
7. Cyanobacteria (Blue-green aglae) -- neurotoxic reactions, such
as tingling fingers and toes. -- the neurotoxins
    can cause salivation and other neurologic symptoms,
    including weakness, staggering, difficulty breathing,
    convulsions, and death.
8. Desulfovibrio -- Brain Abscess
9.
Escherichia coli  --   meningitis   (coliform)
    EPA lists as Primary
Pathogen in sludge biosolids
10. Edwardsiella -- meningitis         (coliform)
11. Enterobacter -- Meningitis,        (coliform)
12.  Enterococcus -- meningitis.
13.
Erysipelothrix -- Chronic meningitis -- Multiple Brain Infarctions
14.
Flavobacterium -- neonatal meningitis
15.  
Haemophilus  -- lethal meningitis in infants -- brain abscess
16.
Kingella -- meningitis, abscesses,
16.
Leptospira --  meningitis
17.
Listeria -- predilection for the brain parenchyma, especially the brain
stem, and the meninges --  Cranial nerve
palsies, encephalitis, meningitis, meningoencephalitis
and abscesses can all occur
18.
Moraxella -- meningitis
19.
Morganella -- Central nervous system  (coliform)
20. Neisseria --  meningitis
21.
Nocardia -- brain abscess
22.
Peptostreptococcus -- brain abscess
23.
Salmonella -- meningitis           (coliform)
    EPA lists as Primary
Pathogen in sludge biosolids
24. Staphylococcus -- meningitis
25.
Streptococcus -- meningitis
26.
Veillonella -- lungs -- pathogen of  central nervous system
27.
Yersinia -- meningitis             (coliform)

Viruses
28. Coxsackieviruses -- aseptic meningitis
    EPA lists as Primary Pathogen in sludge biosolids
29. Echovirus -- aseptic meningitis - central nervous system
    EPA lists as Primary Pathogen in sludge biosolids
30. Enteroviruses -- nervous disorders -- meningitis
    EPA lists as Primary Pathogen in sludge biosolids
31. herpes simplex -- ischemic stroke -- narrows blood vessels that supply the brain
32.
Papovaviruses -- brain (sometimes causing the fatal progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
33.
Picornaviruses -- can "cross over" into the brain, causing memory loss and other neurological symptoms.
34.
Poliovirus -- meningitis, -- nervous system involvement,  
    EPA lists as Primary Pathogen in sludge biosolids

Helminth -- Worms
35.  Ascariasis  -- encephalopathy
    
EPA lists as a disease of Primary Pathogen in sludge biosolids
36. Taenia solium --  cysticercosisbrain (neurocysticercosis) can cause seizures, behavioral disturbances,
obstructive hydrocephalus, and other neurologic signs and symptoms -- intracranial
hypertension, and psychiatric disturbances -- CNS is involved in 60-90% of patients (ie, NCC) --
hydrocephalus, blindness, strokes, meningitis, encephalitis, irreversible brain damage.
    EPA lists as Primary Pathogen in sludge biosolids
37. Toxocariasis--Visceral larva migrans - brain infection -- meningitis, encephalitis, or epilepsy -- loss of
visual acuity or unilateral blindness
    EPA lists as Primary Pathogen in sludge biosolids
38. Trichinosis Myalgias -- meningitis -- neuropathy -- Encephalitis
    EPA lists as Primary Pathogen in sludge biosolids

Protozoa
39. Entamoeba -- Cerebral amebiasis --  brain abscess -- abrupt onset of mental status change
  and/or focal neurologic deficits.
     EPA lists as Primary Pathogen in sludge biosolids
40. Naegleria fowleri -- Meningoencephalitis (PAM) -- enters brain by locomotion and destruction
of of brain tissue and neurons -- loss of balance, seizures, and hallucinations -- death
41.
Toxoplasma gondii -- Severe toxoplasmosis -- meningitis -- damage to the brain, eyes, or other organs,
    EPA lists as Primary Pathogen in sludge biosolids
40.
Cryptococcosis -- Meningitis
    EPA lists as Primary Pathogen in sludge biosolids

fungus

41.
Aspergillus
    EPA lists as Primary Pathogen in sludge biosolids


Inorganic Chemical Contaminants

EPA acknowledges these contaminants in water

Cadmium
Short-term: EPA has found cadmium to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at
levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle cramps, salivation,
sensory disturbances, liver injury,
convulsions, shock and renal failure.

Cyanide
Short-term: EPA has found cyanide to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to
it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: rapid breathing,
tremors and other neurological
effects

Long-term: Cyanide has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the
MCL: weight loss,
thyroid effects, nerve damage

Lead
Short- and Long-term effects: Lead can cause a variety of adverse health effects when people are exposed to it
at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time. These effects may include interference with red
blood cell chemistry,
delays in normal physical and mental development in babies and young children, slight
deficits in the attention span, hearing, and learning abilities of children, and slight increases in the blood
pressure of some adults.

Long-term effects: Lead has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above
the MCL:
stroke and kidney disease; cancer.

Selenium
EPA has found selenium to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at levels above
the MCL for relatively short  periods of time: hair and fingernail changes; damage to the
peripheral nervous system;
fatigue and irritability.

Long-term: Selenium has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the
MCL: hair and fingernail loss; damage to kidney and liver tissue, and
the nervous and circulatory systems

Thallium
Short-term: EPA has found thallium to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to
it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: gastrointestinal irritation;
nerve damage.

Long-term: Thallium has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the
MCL:
changes in blood chemistry; damage to liver, kidney, intestinal and testicular tissues; hair loss.

Synthetic Organic Contaminants,  including pesticides & herbicides


2,4-D
Short-term
: EPA has found 2,4-D to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at
levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time:
nervous system damage.
Long-term:
2,4-D has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL:
damage to the nervous system, kidneys and liver.

2,4,5-TP (Silvex)
Short-term
: EPA has found 2,4,5-TP to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it
at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: depression and other
nervous system effects,
weakness, stomach irritation and minor damage to liver and kidneys.

Acrylamide
Short-term
: EPA has found acrylamide to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to
it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time:
damage to the nervous system, weakness and
incoordination in the legs.
Long-term: Acrylamide has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the
MCL:
damage to the nervous system, paralysis; cancer

Atrazine  
Long-term:
Atrazine has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the
MCL: weight loss,
cardiovascular damage, retinal and some muscle degeneration; cancer.

Carbofuran
Long-term:
Carbofuran has the potential to cause the following health effects from long-term exposures at levels
above the MCL:
damage to the nervous and reproductive systems.

Endrin
Short-term
: EPA has found endrin to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at
levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time
: tremors, labored breathing, mental confusion,
convulsions.

Epichlorohydrin
Short-term:
EPA has found epichlorohydrin to potentially cause the following health effects when people are
exposed to it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: skin irritation; detrimental effects on liver,
kidneys,
central nervous system.

Ethylene dibromide
Long-term:
EDB has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL:
damage to the respiratory system,
nervous system, liver, heart, and kidneys; cancer.

Heptachlor
Short-term:
EPA has found heptachlor and its epoxide to potentially cause the following health effects when people
are exposed to it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: liver and
central nervous system
damage.

Heptachlor epoxide
Short-term: EPA has found heptachlor and its epoxide to potentially cause the following health effects when people
are exposed to it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: liver and
central nervous system
damage.

Hexachlorobenzene  
Short-term:
EPA has found HCB to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at
levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: skin lesions,
nerve and liver damage.

Methoxychlor  
Short-term:
EPA has found methoxychlor to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed
to it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time:
central nervous system depression, diarrhea, and
damage to liver, kidney and heart tissue.

Oxamyl [Vydate]
Short-term:
EPA has found oxamyl to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at
levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time:
tremors, salivation and tearing due to interference with
nerve function.

PCBs [Polychlorinated biphenyls]  
Short-term: EPA has found PCBs to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at
levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: acne-like eruptions and pigmentation of the skin; hearing
and vision problems;
spasms.

Pentachlorophenol  
Short-term:
EPA has found pentachlorophenol to potentially cause the following health effects when people are
exposed to it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time:
damage to the central nervous system

Picloram  
Short-term:
EPA has found picloram to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it
at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time:
damage to central nervous system, weakness,
diarrhea, weight loss.

Simazine
Long-term:
Simazine has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the
MCL:
tremors; damage to testes, kidneys, liver and thyroid; gene mutations; cancer.

Toxaphene  
Short-term:
EPA has found toxaphene to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to
it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time:
central nervous system effects including
restlessness, hyperexcitability, tremors, spasms or convulsions.
Long-term:
Toxaphene has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the
MCL: liver and kidney degeneration;
central nervous system effects; possible immune system suppression;
cancer.

Volatile Organic Contaminants

Benzene
Short-term:
EPA has found benzene to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at
levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: temporary
nervous system disorders, immune system
depression,
anemia.
Long-term: Benzene has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the
MCL:
chromosome aberrations, cancer.

Chlorobenzene  
Long-term:
Chlorobenzene has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above
the MCL: liver, kidney and
central nervous system damage.

o-Dichlorobenzene
Long-term:
o-DCB has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL:
damage to the
nervous system, liver, kidneys and blood cells.

cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene
Short-term:
EPA has found cis- and trans-1,2-DCE to potentially cause the following health effects when people are
exposed to it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time:
central nervous system depression.
Long-term: Both cis- and trans-1,2-DCE have the potential to cause liver, circulatory and nervous system damage
from long-term exposure at levels above the MCL.

trans-1,2-Dicholoroethylene
Health effects same as above except, The trans form is approximately twice as potent as the cis form in its ability to
depress the central nervous system.

Dichloromethane
Short-term:
EPA has found dichloromethane to potentially cause the following health effects when people are
exposed to it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time:
Damage to the nervous system and to
blood.

1,2-Dichloroethane
Short-term:
EPA has found 1,2-dichloroethane to potentially cause the following health effects when people are
exposed to it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time:
central nervous system disorders, and
adverse lung, kidney, liver circulatory and gastrointestinal effects.

Ethylbenzene
Short-term:
EPA has found ethylbenzene to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed
to it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time:
drowsiness, fatigue, headache and mild eye and
respiratory irritation.
Long-term: Ethylbenzene has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the
MCL: damage to the liver, kidneys,
central nervous system and eyes.

Styrene
Short-term: EPA has found styrene to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at
levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time:
nervous system effects such as depression, loss of
concentration, weakness, fatigue and nausea.
Long-term:
Styrene has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL:
liver and
nerve tissue damage; cancer

1,1,1,-Trichloroethane  
Short-term: EPA has found 1,1,1-TCA to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it
at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: damage to the liver,
nervous system and circulatory
system.
Long-term: 1,1,1-TCA has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the
MCL: liver,
nervous system and circulatory system damage

Toluene
Short-term:
EPA has found toluene to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at
levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: minor
nervous system disorders such as fatigue,
nausea, weakness, confusion.
Long-term: T
oluene has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL:
more pronounced nervous disorders such as spasms, tremors, impairment of speech, hearing, vision,
memory, coordination;
liver and kidney damage.

Vinyl Chloride
Short-term:
EPA has found vinyl chloride to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to
it at high levels (40 - 900 mg/L) for relatively short periods of time:
damage to the nervous system.

Xylenes  
Short-term:
EPA has found xylenes to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at
levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time:
disturbances of cognitive abilities, balance, and
coordination.
Long-term:
Xylenes has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL:
damage to the
central nervous system, liver and kidneys.

Back to deaths
Many types of bacteria, including
Staphylococcus aureus and Bacteroides
fragilis can cause a brain abscess.
Toxoplasma gondii
(see Parasitic Infections:
Toxoplasmosis), a protozoan, and fungi,
such as aspergilli, are common causes of
brain abscess in people who have a
weakened immune system. -- Arteries may
become blocked if
accumulations of bacteria
and blood clots on the valves (called
vegetations) break loose (becoming emboli),
travel through the bloodstream to other parts
of the body, and lodge in an artery, blocking it
-- Blockage of an artery to the brain can
cause a stroke, and blockage of an artery to
the heart can cause a heart attack --
Aseptic
meningitis is inflammation of the
subarachnoid space (located within the
tissues the layers of covering the brain and
spinal cord) that is diagnosed when
standard testing does not detect bacteria. --
Acute bacterial meningitis is rapidly
developing inflammation of the subarachnoid
space (located within the layers of tissue
covering the brain and spinal cord) that is
caused by bacteria. --
Encephalitis is
inflammation of the brain that occurs when a
virus directly infects the brain or when a virus
or something else triggers inflammation. The
spinal cord may also be involved, resulting in
a disorder called encephalomyelitis.  --