California Health Laws Related to Recycled Water June 2001 Edition
Title 22   page 45-46 Purple Book
http://www.dhs.ca.gov/ps/ddwem/waterrecycling/PDFs/purplebookupdate6-01.PDF

EPA: (1989) “Total coliforms are a group of closely related bacteria that are (with few
exceptions) not harmful to humans. Because total coliforms are common inhabitants of ambient
water and may be injured by environmental stresses (e.g., lack of nutrients) and water treatment
(e.g., chlorine disinfection) in a manner similar to most bacterial pathogens and many viral
enteric pathogens, EPA considers them a useful indicator of these pathogens." It is useful for
EPA to hide the fact that t
hey become viable, but nonculturable. This is a classic example
of hiding the relevant facts the public needs between two half-truths or lies.

The operative words are (with few exceptions) Total coliforms are harmful to humans.
Some genus at EPA has had a long habit of inserting words and adding endings to change
factual statements into fiction.  

The same things happens to state rules.

The current California myths are: 1) that disinfected tertiary recycled water is the highest level of
treatment; and, 2) That it is almost drinking water quality.  However, the descriptions in Title 22
expose the myth.
 

According to Title 22,
Disinfected secondary-2.2 recycled water is actually the safest water that can be produced out a
wastewater treatment plant since it can not exceed a coliform most probable number (mpn) of  
2.2 per 100 milliliter utilizing the bacteriological results of the last seven days for which analyses
have been completed. Well, except it can not
exceed coliform mpn of 23 per 100 milliliter once a
month.

After that it goes down hill.
Disinfected secondary-23 recycled water goes through the identical process, yet it can not
exceed coliform mpn of
23 per 100 milliliter utilizing the bacteriological results of the last seven
days for which analyses have been completed.. Well, except it can not
exceed a coliform mpn of
240 per 100 milliliter once a month.

You know its a myth when they take too long to explain it. The rules are tossed out.
Disinfected tertiary recycled water is supposed to have additional treatment and can not exceed
a coliform MPN of 2.2 per 100 milliliters utilizing the bacteriological results of the last seven days
for which analyses have been completed.  Well, except it can not
exceed  a coliform MPN of 23
per 100 milliliters once a month. OH, Well, except, it can not  exceed a coliform MPN of 240 per
100
milliliters once a month.

Title 22 actually authorizes the wastewater treatment plants to violate the rules.
For those who can't do the math in you head, a coliform mpn of 240 per 100 milliter is an
average coliform mpn of 8 per 100 milliliter a day.  Or, 10 times that allowed in Disinfected
secondary-2.2 recycled water once a month


60301.220. Disinfected secondary-2.2 recycled water
"Disinfected secondary-2.2 recycled water" means recycled water that has been
oxidized and disinfected so that the median concentration of total coliform bacteria in
the disinfected effluent does not exceed a most probable number (MPN) of 2.2 per 100
milliliters utilizing the bacteriological results of the last seven days for which analyses
have been completed, and the number of total coliform bacteria does not exceed an
MPN of 23 per 100 milliliters in more than one sample in any 30 day period.

60301.225. Disinfected secondary-23 recycled water
"Disinfected secondary-23 recycled water" means recycled water that has been
oxidized and disinfected so that the median concentration of total coliform bacteria in
the disinfected effluent does not exceed a most probable number (MPN) of 23 per 100
milliliters utilizing the bacteriological results of the last seven days for which analyses
have been completed, and the number of total coliform bacteria does not exceed an
MPN of 240 per 100 milliliters in more than one sample in any 30 day period.

60301.230. Disinfected tertiary recycled water
"Disinfected tertiary recycled water" means a filtered and subsequently disinfected
wastewater that meets the following criteria:
(a) The filtered wastewater has been disinfected by either:
(1) A chlorine disinfection process following filtration that provides a CT (the
product of total chlorine residual and modal contact time measured at the same
point) value of not less than 450 milligram-minutes per liter at all times with a
modal contact time of at least 90 minutes, based on peak dry weather design
flow; or
(2) A disinfection process that, when combined with the filtration process, has
been demonstrated to inactivate and/or remove 99.999 percent of the plaqueforming
units of F-specific bacteriophage MS2, or polio virus in the wastewater.
A virus that is at least as resistant to disinfection as polio virus may be used for
purposes of the demonstration.
(b) The median concentration of total coliform bacteria measured in the disinfected
effluent does not exceed an MPN of 2.2 per 100 milliliters utilizing the bacteriological
results of the last seven days for which analyses have been completed and the number
of total coliform bacteria does not exceed an MPN of 23 per 100 milliliters in more than
one sample in any 30 day period. No sample shall exceed an MPN of 240 total coliform
bacteria per 100 milliliters

60304. Use of recycled water for irrigation
(a) Recycled water used for the surface irrigation of the following shall be a disinfected
tertiary recycled water, except that for filtration pursuant to Section 60301.320(a)
coagulation need not be used as part of the treatment process provided that the filter
effluent turbidity does not exceed 2 NTU, the turbidity of the influent to the filters is
continuously measured, the influent turbidity does not exceed 5 NTU for more than 15
minutes and never exceeds 10 NTU, and that there is the capability to automatically
activate chemical addition or divert the wastewater should the filter influent turbidity
exceed 5 NTU for more than 15 minutes:
(1) Food crops, including all edible root crops, where the recycled water comes
into contact with the edible portion of the crop,
(2) Parks and playgrounds,
(3) School yards,
(4) Residential landscaping,
(5) Unrestricted access golf courses, and
(6) Any other irrigation use not specified in this section and not prohibited by
other sections of the California Code of Regulations.
(b) Recycled water used for the surface irrigation of food crops where the edible portion
is produced above ground and not contacted by the recycled water shall be at least
disinfected secondary-2.2 recycled water.
(c) Recycled water used for the surface irrigation of the following shall be at least
disinfected secondary-23 recycled water:
(1) Cemeteries,
California Health Laws Related to Recycled Water June 2001 Edition
Title 22
52
(2) Freeway landscaping,
(3) Restricted access golf courses,
(4) Ornamental nursery stock and sod farms where access by the general public
is not restricted,
(5) Pasture for animals producing milk for human consumption, and
(6) Any nonedible vegetation where access is controlled so that the irrigated
area cannot be used as if it were part of a park, playground or school yard
(d) Recycled wastewater used for the surface irrigation of the following shall be at least
undisinfected secondary recycled water:
(1) Orchards where the recycled water does not come into contact with the
edible portion of the crop,
(2) Vineyards where the recycled water does not come into contact with the
edible portion of the crop,
(3) Non food-bearing trees (Christmas tree farms are included in this category
provided no irrigation with recycled water occurs for a period of 14 days prior to
harvesting or allowing access by the general public),
(4) Fodder and fiber crops and pasture for animals not producing milk for human
consumption,
(5) Seed crops not eaten by humans,
(6) Food crops that must undergo commercial pathogen-destroying processing
before being consumed by humans, and
(7) Ornamental nursery stock and sod farms provided no irrigation with recycled
water occurs for a period of 14 days prior to harvesting, retail sale, or allowing
access by the general public.
(e) No recycled water used for irrigation, or soil that has been irrigated with recycled
water, shall come into contact with the edible portion of food crops eaten raw by
humans unless the recycled water complies with subsection (a).
California