Pestivirus is a genus of viruses that belong to the family Flaviviridae. Viruses in the genus Pestivirus infect mammals,
including members of the family Bovidae (which includes, but is not limited to, cattle, sheep, and goats) and the family
Suidae (which includes various species of swine).
Pestivirus is widespread in Australia, mainly in cattle. Some adult cattle are immune to the disease, while others are life-
long carriers. If a foetus becomes infected within the first three to four months of gestation then it will fail to develop
antibodies towards the virus. In these cases the animals often die before birth or shortly after.
Symptoms of Pestivirus infection include diarrhoea, respiratory problems and bleeding disorders.
The Flaviviridae are a family of viruses that are primarily spread through arthropod vectors (mainly ticks and
mosquitoes). They include the following genera:
Genus Flavivirus (type species Yellow fever virus, others include West Nile virus and Dengue Fever)—contains 67
identified human and animal viruses
Genus Hepacivirus (type species Hepatitis C virus, the single member)
Genus Pestivirus (type species Bovine virus diarrhea, others include classical swine fever or hog cholera)—contains
viruses infecting non-human mammals
Flaviviridae have monopartite, linear, single-stranded RNA genomes of positive polarity, 9.6- to 12.3-kilobase in
length. The 5'-termini of flaviviruses carry a methylated nucleotide cap, while other members of this family are
uncapped and encode an internal ribosome entry site. Virus particles are enveloped and spherical, about 40-60 nm in
Major diseases caused by the Flaviviridae family include:
Kyasanur Forest disease
Murray Valley encephalitis
St. Louis encephalitis
West Nile encephalitis
Hepatitis C Virus Infection