Paramyxoviruses are viruses of the Paramyxoviridae family of the Mononegavirales order; they are negative-sense
single-stranded RNA viruses responsible for a number of human and animal diseases.
A number of important human diseases are caused by paramyxoviruses. These include mumps, measles, which caused
745,000 deaths in 2001 and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) which is the major cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia
in infants and children.
The parainfluenza viruses are the second most common causes of respiratory tract disease in infants and children.
They can cause pneumonia, bronchitis and croup in children and the elderly.
Human metapneumovirus, initially described in about 2001, is also implicated in bronchitis, especially in children.
Paramyxoviruses are also responsible for a range of diseases in other animal species, for example canine distemper
virus (dogs), phocine distemper virus (seals), cetacean morbillivirus (dolphins and porpoises) Newcastle disease virus
(birds) and rinderpest virus (cattle). Some paramyxoviruses such as the henipaviruses are zoonotic pathogens,
occurring naturally in an animal host, but also able to infect humans.
Genus Avulavirus (type species Newcastle disease virus)
Genus Henipavirus (type species Hendravirus; others include Nipahvirus)
Genus Morbillivirus (type species Measles virus; others include Rinderpest virus, Canine distemper virus, phocine
Genus Respirovirus (type speciesSendai virus; others include Human parainfluenza viruses 1 and 3, as well some of
the viruses of the common cold)
Genus Rubulavirus (type species Mumps virus; others include Simian parainfluenza virus 5, Menangle virus, Tioman
Genus TPMV-like viruses (type species Tupaia paramyxovirus)
Genus Pneumovirus (type species Human respiratory syncytial virus, others include Bovine respiratory syncytial virus)
Genus Metapneumovirus (type species Avian pneumovirus)