Bunyaviridae is a family of negative-stranded RNA viruses. Though generally found in arthropods or rodents, certain
viruses in this family occasionally infect humans.
Bunyaviridae are vector-borne viruses. With the exception of Hantaviruses, transmission occurs via an arthropod vector
(mosquitos, tick, or sandfly). Hantaviruses are transmitted through contact with deer mice feces. Incidence of infection is
closely linked to vector activity, for example, mosquito-borne viruses are more common in the summer.
Human infections with certain Bunyaviruses, such as Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever virus, are associated with high
levels of morbidity and mortality, consequently handling of these viruses must occur with a Biosafety level 4 laboratory.
Hanta virus or Hantavirus Hemorrhagic fever, common in Korea, Scandinavia, Russia, and South West America, is
associated with high fever, lung edema and pulmonary failure. Mortality is around 55%.
The antibody reaction plays an important role in decreasing levels of virema.
The family Bunyaviridae contains the genera:
Genus Hantavirus; type species: Hantaan virus (Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Korean hemorrhagic fever)
Genus Nairovirus; type species: Dugbe virus
Genus Orthobunyavirus; type species: Bunyamwera virus
Genus Phlebovirus; type species: Rift Valley fever virus
Genus Tospovirus; type species: Tomato spotted wilt virus
Of these genera, all infect vertebrates except Tospoviruses, which only infect arthropods and plants.