Adenovirus /ad·e·no·vi·rus/ (ad´e-no-vi?rus) any virus belonging to the family Adenoviridae.adenovi´ral
A family of double-stranded DNA-containing viruses, of which there are more than 80 antigenic species that cause
diseases of the respiratory tract and conjunctiva.-- Obesity in animals, and association with human Obesity, and
Ischemic stroke in children.
Adenovirus types 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7
PATHOGENICITY: Varies in clinical manifestation and severity; symptoms include fever, rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis,
cough and conjunctivitis; common cause of nonstreptococcal exudative pharyngitis among children under 3 years; more
severe diseases include laryngitis, croup, bronchiolitis, or severe pneumonia; a syndrome of pharyngitis and
conjunctivitis (pharyngoconjunctival fever) is associated with adenovirus infection
EPIDEMIOLOGY: Worldwide; seasonal in temperate regions, with highest incidences in the fall, winter and early spring;
in tropical areas, infections are common in the wet and colder weather; annual incidence is particularly high in children;
adenovirus types 4 and 7 are common among military recruits (ARD)
HOST RANGE: Humans
INFECTIOUS DOSE: >150 plaque forming units when given intranasally
MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Directly by oral contact and droplet spread; indirectly by handkerchiefs, eating utensils and
other articles freshly soiled with respiratory discharge of an infected person; outbreaks have been related to swimming
pools; possible spread through the fecal-oral route
INCUBATION PERIOD: From 1-10 days
COMMUNICABILITY: Shortly prior to and for the duration of the active disease
Adenovirus infections most commonly cause illness of the respiratory system; however, depending on the infecting
serotype, they may also cause various other illnesses, such as gastroenteritis, conjunctivitis, cystitis, and rash illness.
Symptoms of respiratory illness caused by adenovirus infection range from the common cold syndrome to pneumonia,
croup, and bronchitis. Patients with compromised immune systems are especially susceptible to severe complications of
adenovirus infection. Acute respiratory disease (ARD), first recognized among military recruits during World War II, can
be caused by adenovirus infections during conditions of crowding and stress.
Recently, several Adenoviruses, especially Adenovirus 36 (AD-36) have been shown to cause Obesity in animals, and
association with human Obesity.
Although epidemiologic characteristics of the adenoviruses vary by type, all are transmitted by direct contact, fecal-oral
transmission, and occasionally waterborne transmission. Some types are capable of establishing persistent
asymptomatic infections in tonsils, adenoids, and intestines of infected hosts, and shedding can occur for months or
years. Some adenoviruses (e.g., serotypes 1, 2, 5, and 6) have been shown to be endemic in parts of the world where
they have been studied, and infection is usually acquired during childhood. Other types cause sporadic infection and
occasional outbreaks; for example, epidemic keratoconjunctivitis is associated with adenovirus serotypes 8, 19, and 37.
Epidemics of febrile disease with conjunctivitis are associated with waterborne transmission of some adenovirus types,
often centering around inadequately chlorinated swimming pools and small lakes. ARD is most often associated with
adenovirus types 4 and 7 in the United States. Enteric adenoviruses 40 and 41 cause gastroenteritis, usually in
children. For some adenovirus serotypes, the clinical spectrum of disease associated with infection varies depending on
the site of infection; for example, infection with adenovirus 7 acquired by inhalation is associated with severe lower
respiratory tract disease, whereas oral transmission of the virus typically causes no or mild disease. Outbreaks of
adenovirus-associated respiratory disease have been more common in the late winter, spring, and early summer;
however, adenovirus infections can occur throughout the year.
Mastadenovirus /Mas·tad·e·no·vi·rus/ (mast-ad´e-no-vi?rus) mammalian adenoviruses; a genus of viruses of the family
Adenoviridae that infect mammals, causing disease of the gastrointestinal tract, conjunctiva, central nervous system,
and urinary tract; many species induce malignancy.
A genus of adenoviruses including many species that infect humans, some of which cause respiratory infections and
acute follicular conjunctivitis
Wiener Klinische Wochenschrif, Volume 121, Numbers 23-24 / December, 2009
Ischemic stroke associated with adenoviral infection in a 4-year-old boy
Summary We present a case of childhood arterial ischemic stroke associated with proven adenoviral upper respiratory
tract infection in a previously healthy 4-year-old boy. Adenoviral meningitis and encephalitis have been reported
repeatedly, thus confirming the neuroinvasive capability of these viruses. However, an association between adenoviral
infection and arterial ischemic stroke has not been described thus far. HIV and varicella zoster virus are the only
microorganisms that have been consistently associated with arterial ischemic stroke in the absence of acute central
nervous system infection. In HIV-infected individuals ischemic stroke can be caused by vasculitis and hypercoagulability.
Granulomatous arteritis of the vessel wall causes post-varicella cerebral infarction and ischemic stroke after herpes
zoster ophthalmicus. We suggest that in our patient a post-varicella cerebral infarction-like mechanism of adenoviral
spread to the affected artery wall occurred through the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve. Adenoviruses are
neuroinvasive and inflamed conjunctiva might have permitted introduction of the virus into ophthalmic nerve tissue. In
consequence, the stenotic lesion of the artery might have been induced by the presence of adenovirus and the
subsequent inflammatory reaction. We recommend a prompt quest for adenoviral infection in all previously healthy
children with fever and clinical presentation compatible with ischemic stroke, because timely diagnosis and treatment
could improve the outcome and hasten neurological recovery.
1981 -- One-year survey of enteroviruses, adenoviruses, and reoviruses isolated from effluent at an activated-sludge
ABSTRACT: Samples of raw sewage, primary effluent, and secondary effluent from a large activated-sludge purification
plant near Melbourne (Victoria, Australia) were collected every second week for 1 year. Viruses were detected in all
secondary effluent samples and in six of seven samples obtained after final chlorination. Adenoviruses (85% reduction)
and reoviruses (28% reduction) were removed less efficiently by this treatment process than were enteroviruses (93%
reduction). In addition, 57 of 171 samples of effluent tested were positive for either adenoviruses or reoviruses, or both,
when enteroviruses were not isolated. This clearly shows that the use of enteroviruses as sole indicators of viruses in
water may miss up to one-third of instances of viral contamination. Enteroviruses and adenoviruses were isolated most
frequently in HeLa-R cell cultures, whereas reoviruses were most often isolated in primary monkey kidney cells.
Appl Environ Microbiol. 1981 January; 41(1): 51-59