Why would EPA lie in 1989, and today, by claiming Echovirus cause no infectious disease?
9. Echovirus --------------------------------------------no disease
An echovirus is a type of RNA virus that belongs to the genus Enterovirus of the Picornaviridae family. The viruses are
found in the gastrointestinal tract (hence it being part of the enterovrius genus) and exposure to the virus causes other,
opportunistic infections and diseases.
Echovirus is highly infectious, and its primary target is children. The echovirus is among the leading causes of acute
febrile illness in infants and young children, and is the most common cause of aseptic meningitis. Infection of an infant
with this virus following birth may cause severe systemic diseases, and is associated with high infant mortality rates. The
echovirus can mimic symptoms caused by other common bacterial and viral infections, so echovirus infections are often
treated with therapies aimed for other infections. This can lead to the evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
Some viral replication of an echovirus occurs in the nasopharynx after infection and then spreads to regional lymph
nodes. However, most viral particles are swallowed and they reach the lower gut tract, where the virus is presumed to
bind to specific receptors. The virus then spreads to the lower intestinal tract, replicating but not causing any major
cellular effects along the way. Next, the virus spreads to many secondary sites in the body such as the central nervous
system, liver, spleen, bone marrow, heart and finally the lungs. Additional replication of the virus will occur, causing
symptoms 4 to 6 days after infection. The most deadly part however is delayed when symptoms of a central nervous
system disease start to appear. Enteroviruses are capable of infecting any cell in the body. These viruses are highly
infectious. They can spread through the air to other hosts 1-3 weeks after infection and can spread through feces to
other hosts eight weeks after infection.