Pectobacterium

Pectobacterium carotovorum - Simple English Wikipedia, the free ...
Pectobacterium carotovorum (syn Erwinia carotovora) is a rod shaped bacterium –
originally isolated from carrot- is a plant pathogen and opportunistic human pathogen, ...
Names of plant pathogenic bacteria 1864–1995. Rev. Plant Pathol. ...
simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pectobacterium_carotovorum - Cached - Similar
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Deoxyribonucleic Acid Relatedness Among Erwiniae and Other Enterobacteriaceae:
the Soft-Rot Organisms (Genus Pectobacterium waldee)

Division of Biochemistry, Walter Reed Army Institute ojResearch,

Relatedness among soft-rot-producing organisms of the genus Pectobacterium
Waldee was assessed by means of interspecific deoxyribonucleic acid reassociation
followed by chromatography on hydroxyapatite. Relatedness was also
determined between pectobacteria and representatives from all other established
genera of the family Enterohacteriaceae. The results indicate five distinct groups
of pectobacteria: (i) Pectobucteriuin carotovorurn (Jones) Waldee, including
Erwinia aroideae (Townsend) Holland, E. atroseptica (van Hall) Jennison, E.
solanisapra (Harrison) Holland, and Bacillus oleraceae Harrison; (ii) P.
carnegieana (Lightle et al.) comb. nov.; (iii) cornstalk-rot bacterium and P.
chrysanthemi (Burkholder et al.) comb. nov. (including E. dieffenbachiae
McFadden, E. cytolytica Chester, and P. carotovorurn f. sp. parthenii); (iv) P.
cypripedii (Hori) comb, nov.; and (v) P. rhapontici (Millard) Pate1 and Kulkarni.
Relatedness between groups of pectobacteria is 20 to 50% except between the P.
carotovorurn group and strains of P. carnegieana, which exhibit 60 to 70%
relatedness, With few exceptions, the pectobacteria are 20 to 50% related to
other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The data presented support the
inclusion of pectobacteria in the family En terobacteriaceae.
http://ijs.sgmjournals.org/content/23/3/205.full.pdf
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Comparative genomics has shown that enteric human pathogens are closely related to
enteric plants pathogens, in particular Pectobacterium spp. (formerly Erwinia) (recently
sequenced by Ian Toth and colleagues: Bell et al., 2004 PNAS 101:11105). The
comparison allows identification of key genes that are involved in interactions with plants,
at the first step of adherence and the subsequent steps of invasion and persistence.

The research is important in firstly gaining an in-depth understanding of how human
pathogens interact with plants with the longer term goal to control and/or prevent the
transmission from agricultural plants to humans.
http://www.scri.ac.uk/staff/nicolaholden
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Phylogeny and Virulence of Naturally Occurring Type III Secretion System-Deficient
Pectobacterium Strains▿

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2008 Colonization outwith the colon: plants as an alternative environmental reservoir for
human pathogenic enterobacteria

Members of the Enterobacteriaceae have the capacity to adapt to a wide variety of
environments and can be isolated from a range of host species across biological
kingdoms. Bacteria that are pathogenic to animals, in particular humans, are increasingly
found to be transmitted through the food chain by fruits and vegetables. Rather than
simply contaminating plant surfaces, there is a growing body of evidence to show that
these bacteria actively interact with plants and can colonize them as alternative hosts.
This review draws together evidence from studies that investigate proven and potential
mechanisms involved in colonization of plants by human pathogenic enterobacteria.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1574-6976.2008.00153.x/full
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causes bacterial soft rot in potato, tomato, pepper, eggplant, and cabbage
http://www.iresa.agrinet.tn/tjpp/tjpp3/3Article1.pdf
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Production of bio-ethanol from Pectobacterium carotovorum induced soft rotten potatoes

P. carotovorum is a rod shaped bacterium originally isolated from carrot, is a plant
pathogen and opportunistic human pathogen, causative agent of soft rot and blackleg
potato (Pectobacterium atrosepticum) diseases
(Abouzied et al., 1983; Jarl et al., 1969).

The potato is a tuberous crop that adapt readily to diverse climates. The potato contains
vitamins and minerals that have been identified as vital to human nutrition as well as an
assortment of phytochemicals, such as carotenoids and polyphenols. Pectobacterium
carotovorum is the causative  agent for the soft rot induced in potatoes across
temperate and tropical regions. Production of ethanol from 10 potato cultivars which
were rotten by soft rot (P. carotovorum induced) was effected. Ethanol
yield of about 6 - 10 ml / 100 gm of potatoes was achieved. The effect of pH in the yield
of ethanol was also determined in the ten cultivars by varying the levels of pH across the
spectrum and it was found that pH had a considerable impact on bio-ethanol production.
This method of ethanol production is easy and environmental friendly in nature.
http://www.academicjournals.org/ajmr/PDF/Pdf2010/18Jun/Ramesh%20et%20al.pdf
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Quorum sensing is a master regulator of phytopathogenesis
Monday, August 11th, 2008
Many Gram-negative bacteria use a population density-dependent regulatory
mechanism called quorum sensing (QS) to control the production of virulence factors
during infection. In the bacterial plant pathogen Pectobacterium atrosepticum (formerly
Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica), an important model for QS, this mechanism
regulates production of enzymes that physically attack the host plant cell wall. A recent
study used a whole genome microarray-based approach to investigate the entire QS
regulon during plant infection. Results demonstrate that QS regulates a much wider set
of essential virulence factors than was previously appreciated. These include virulence
factors similar to those in other plant and animal pathogens that have not previously
been associated with QS, e.g. a Type VI secretion system (and its potential substrates),
shown for the first time to be required for virulence in a plant pathogen; and the plant
toxin coronafacic acid, known in other pathogens to play a role in manipulating plant
defences. This study provides the first evidence that Pectobacterium may target host
defences simultaneously with a physical attack on the plant cell wall. Moreover, the study
demonstrates that a wide range of previously known and unknown virulence regulators
lie within the QS regulon, revealing it to be the master regulator of virulence.

Quorum sensing (QS) in vitro controls production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes
(PCWDEs) and other virulence factors in the soft rotting enterobacterial plant pathogen
Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Pba). 26% of the Pba genome exhibited differential
transcription in a QS mutant, compared to the wild-type, suggesting that QS may make a
greater contribution to pathogenesis than previously thought. novel components of the
QS regulon were identified, including the Type I and II secretion systems, which are
involved in the secretion of PCWDEs; a novel Type VI secretion system and its predicted
substrates; more than 70 known or putative regulators, some of which have been
demonstrated to control pathogenesis and, remarkably, the Type III secretion system
and associated effector proteins, and coronafacoyl-amide conjugates, both of which play
roles in the manipulation of plant defences. These findings indicate that QS is a master
regulator of phytopathogenesis, controlling multiple other regulators that, in turn, co-
ordinately regulate genes associated with manipulation of host defences in concert with
the destructive arsenal of PCWDEs that manifest the soft rot disease phenotype.

Quorum Sensing Coordinates Brute Force and Stealth Modes of Infection in the Plant
Pathogen Pectobacterium atrosepticum. 2008 PLoS Pathogens 4(6): e1000093