EPA claims Shigella is a Primary Pathogen in Sludge Biosolids that only causes Gastroenteritis

4.     Shigella sp ----------------------------------------- Gastroenteritis.

Shigella /Shi·gel·la/ (shi-gel´ah) a genus of gram-negative bacteria (family Enterobacteriaceae) which cause
dysentery. They are separated into four species on the basis of biochemical reactions: S. dysente´riae, S.
flexne´ri, S. boy´dii, and S. son´nei.
http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Shigella

The genus Shigella consists of four species: S. dysenteriae (subgroup A), S. flexneri (subgroup B), S. boydii (subgroup
C), and S. sonnei (subgroup D). Shigella organisms may be very difficult to distinguish biochemically from Escherichia
coli. Brenner (1) considers Shigella organisms and E. coli to be a single species, based on DNA homology.
http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~ebam/bam-6.html

Shigella - all species and all serotypes

Shigella (a coliform) is one of the Enterobacteriaceae. Infections include, aneurysms, endocarditis,
watery diarrhea, develop seizures, eye inflammation and reactive arthritis (Reiter's syndrome),
intestinal perforation may occur, part of the rectum to be pushed out of the body, Permanent loss of
bowel control can result, Necrotizing "flesh eating"enterocolitis: antimicrobial resistance. Now
produces poisonous Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) gas.

According to the FDA Bad Bug Book 2009, Shigella “Organisms are difficult to demonstrate in foods
because methods are not developed or are insensitive. A genetic probe to the virulence plasmid has
been developed by FDA and is currently under field test. However, the isolation procedures are still
poor.”

Shigella was one of the primary pathogen listed in the 1989 proposed 503 sludge regulation. EPA
claimed Shigella is a Primary Pathogen in Sludge Biosolids that only causes Gastroenteritis. Even this
small warning was removed from the final regulation.

According to the Merck Manual, Shigellosis is an acute infection of the intestine caused by Shigella sp.
Symptoms include fever, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea that is usually bloody. – Shigella causes
disease by penetrating the lining of the intestine—primarily, the large intestine—resulting in swelling
and sometimes shallow sores, abdominal pain and watery diarrhea. Intestinal perforation may occur as
well as part of the rectum may be pushed out of the body. Permanent loss of bowel control can result,
Patient may develop seizures, inflammation and reactive arthritis (Reiter's syndrome) as well as eye
infections. Weight loss and dehydration may become severe and leads to shock and death. (Merck)

According to the Medscape article,”
Shigella Infection,” Jaya Sureshbabu, et al., “These organisms are
members of the coliform family, Enterobacteriaceae – The characteristic virulence trait is encoded on a
large (220 kb) plasmid responsible for synthesis of polypeptides that cause cytotoxicity. Shigellae that
lose the virulence plasmid are no longer pathogenic. Escherichia coli (E coli O157:H7) that harbor this
plasmid clinically behave as Shigella bacteria. – Regarding chromosomally encoded enterotoxin, many
pathogenic features of Shigella infection are due to the production of potent cytotoxins known as Stx, a
potent protein synthesis–inhibiting exotoxin. – These toxins are lethal to animals; enterotoxic to ligated
rabbit intestinal segments; and cytotoxic for vero, HeLa, and some selected endothelial cells (human
renal vascular endothelial cells) manifesting as diarrhea, dysentery, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome
(HUS). – Shigella chromosomes share most of their genes with E coli K12 strain MG1655, and the
diversity of putative virulence genes acquired by means of bacteriophage-mediated lateral gene transfer
is extensive. – According to recent CDC reports, Shigella infection accounted for 28% of all the enteric
bacterial infections.[1] Children younger than 5 years had 7% of total reported cases, a rate indicating a
disproportionate disease burden in this population.” http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/968773-
overview#a0199

Shigella is also an invasive pathogen which can be recovered from the bloody stool of an infected host. Invasive
pathogens colonize the host's tissues as opposed to growing on tissue surfaces.


cause disease by penetrating the lining of the intestine—primarily, the large intestine—resulting in swelling and
sometimes shallow sores, abdominal pain and watery diarrhea,  develop seizures, eye inflammation and reactive arthritis
(Reiter's syndrome), intestinal perforation may occur, part of the rectum to be pushed out of the body, Permanent loss
of bowel control can result, Weight loss and dehydration may become severe and leads to shock and death. (Merck)

Necrotizing enterocolitis: