Nocardia species are often responsible for the accumulation of foam that occurs in activate sludge
during wastewater treatment. Biological foaming can be problematic for the water treatment process,
and foam accumulation is reduced by adding surfactants to the wastewater.
Bioremediation of hydrocarbons
Soil Nocardiaceae can degrade hydrocarbons (e.g. petroleum distillates) and have been proposed as
bioremediation agents for environmental spills.
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Library of
Medicine, MEDLINEplus Medical Encyclopedia
"A rare infection caused by a bacteria called Nocardia...Nocardia is found in soil around the world. It can be
contracted by inhaling contaminated dust or via contamination of a wound with soil containing Nocardia..."
Nocardial brain abscesses remain a clinical challenge. We successfully treated a patient with nocardial brain
abscess, mycetoma, pneumonia, and glomerulonephritis. Nocardial soft tissue involvement, mycetoma, is well
known. However, the fact that actinomycetoma can metastasize may not be as well appreciated. The association
between nocardiosis and glomerulonephritis should be better clarified.
Nocardiosis occurs throughout the world and approximately 1000 cases of infection are diagnosed annually in
U.S.A. Nocardiosis belongs to group of actinomycetes which usually present as opportunistic infection in
immunocompromised individual eg. AIDS, tuberculosis, organ transplant recipients, patients on
immunosuppressant drugs, lymphoma and chronic alcoholics. CNS is the most common site of the
disseminated disease which is usually associated with high morbidity and mortality. In one series the mortality
was 24% in operated patients and 30% in non operated patients. 22% were diagnosed at autopsy. Since the
advent of CT, the mortality has dropped by 50% because of early diagnosis and consequent early medical and
surgical treatment. CT or MRI is mandatory for diagnosis of CNS nocardiosis. Multiloculated supratentorial
abscess with ring enhancement is a typical picture. Subepndymal nodule, basal meningitis and hydrocephalous
may occasionally be found. Imaging may also help therapeutically to drain the abscess stereotactically. The
treatment of nocardiosis is also difficult. Prolonged course of antibiotics for 6-12 months is required. There is a
tendency for relapse. Co-trimoxazole is the first drug of choice. Other drugs which can alternatively be used are
minocyclin, amoxycillin and clauvulinic acid. Surgical drainage of CNS abscess is essential if abscess is large and
superficial. Small deep seated abscess can be treated conservatively.