EPA claims Campylobacter is a Primary Pathogen in Sludge Biosolids that only causes Gastroenteritis

1.    Campylobacter jejuni -------------------------   Gastroenteritis.

Produces poisonous
H2S gas and necrotizing infection

Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial foodborne illness found in  chicken, turkey, duck, goose, game
fowl, unpasteurized (raw) milk, undercooked meats such as beef, pork, lamb, shellfish, produce, and eggs.
http://www.foodborneillness.com/campylobacter_food_poisoning/

"Campylobacter species have the highest reported temperature for growth of bacteria isolated from clinical material.
They have been known to grow at temperatures of up to 45°C." (
Fecal coliform range)

Campylobacter is considered by many to be the leading cause of enteric illness in the United States (20,26).
Campylobacter species can cause mild to severe diarrhea, with loose, watery stools often followed by
bloody diarrhea. Campylobacter species are highly infective. The infective dose of C. jejuni ranges from 500
to 10,000 cells, depending on the strain, damage to cells from environmental stresses, and the
susceptibility of the host. The infections are manifested as meningitis, pneumonia, miscarriage, and a
severe form of Guillain-Barré syndrome.  Environmental stresses, such as exposure to air, drying, low pH,
heating, freezing, and prolonged storage, damage cells and hinder recovery to a greater degree than for
most bacteria. Older and stressed organisms gradually become coccoidal and increasingly difficult to
culture. http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~ebam/bam-7.html

Diarrhea (may be bloody), fever, abdominal pain, and cramps,
bloodstream infection (bacteremia) may lead to infections of other organs, joints may becomes painful, red,
and swollen; abdominal pain; and enlargement of the liver or spleen. The infection may involve the heart
valves (endocarditis) or the tissues covering the brain and spinal cord (meningitis). (Merck)

Campylobacter: C. jejuni, an organism that causes gastrointestinitis.  bloody diarrhea indicates that
Campylobacter is an invasive pathogen that infiltrates the lining of the small intestine. Along the way, the
organism excretes toxins that destroy the gut mucosa.
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Campylobacter infections commonly cause diarrhea and occasionally bacteremia, with consequent
endocarditis, osteomyelitis, or septic arthritis.

Epidemiology

Campylobacter sp are motile, curved, microaerophilic, gram-negative bacilli that normally inhabit the GI
tract of many domestic animals and fowl. Several species are human pathogens. Most cause diarrhea in all
age groups, although peak incidence appears to be from age 1 to 5 yr. Campylobacter accounts for more
cases of diarrhea in the US than Salmonella and Shigella combined. C. fetus and several others typically
cause bacteremia in adults, more often when underlying predisposing diseases, such as diabetes,
cirrhosis, or malignancy, are present. In patients with immunoglobulin deficiencies, these organisms may
cause difficult-to-treat, relapsing infections. C. jejuni can cause meningitis in infants.

Contact with infected animals and ingestion of contaminated food (especially undercooked poultry) or water
have been implicated in outbreaks. However, for sporadic cases, the source of the infecting organism
frequently is obscure. There is an association between summer outbreaks of C. jejuni diarrheal illness and
subsequent development (up to 30% of cases) of Guillain-Barré syndrome
http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec14/ch173/ch173d.html

Haemorrhagic Campylobacter jejuni and CMV colitis in a renal transplant recipient

CMV infection can involve a number of organs, including the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), with a clinical presentation of
abdominal pain, diarrhoea, haematochezia and constitutional symptoms, such as fever, malaise and weight loss. The
factors that predispose the colon to CMV infection are unknown [2]. The virus has a tendency to infect tissues with a
high cell turnover and, therefore, CMV infection may localize to the GIT mucosa in areas of inflammation. We report a
case of severe
necrotizing colitis related to CMV infection in a renal transplant recipient with a recent Campylobacter
jejuni infection.

Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 2005 20(4):823-826;

Animals
D) Vibriosis (Campylobacter): A common bacterial disease, spread through breeding. It
causes early embryonic death so appears as an infertility and results in a prolonged breeding and
calving season as well as a reduced calf crop. Two types of vaccine are available. One is in an oil
base product to prolong the absorption. Only one dose is required initially. Subsequent boosters
given in the fall at pregnancy testing will extend the protection on through the next breeding
season.
The other type of vaccine has an aluminum hydroxide or other adjuvant and requires two
doses initially. Be sure to give both doses to obtain a protective level of immunity. The annual
boosters for this type of vaccine should be given 30 days prior to breeding. This type comes in
combination with Lepto and other vaccines and is easier to administer, but it must be used
according to directions if it is to be effective.
Bulls infected with vibrio have been cleared by use of two doses (of 5 ml) of the oil base
vaccine, 30 days apart. All bulls should be vaccinated and given an annual booster in the fall. All
cows in multiple owner herds and in herds adding used cows or bulls should be vaccinated.

Biofilm production aids campylobacter survival
24.mar.10
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2010; 76 (7): 2122
Reuter et al.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/03/100324184602.htm

Scientists at the Institute of Food Research have found a way that the foodborne pathogen Campylobacter can survive
in the environment.

Campylobacter is the main cause of food poisoning in Europe and America, most often contracted from eating
under-cooked chicken or turkey. It is estimated that there are more than 400,000 cases of Campylobacter food
poisoning annually in the UK alone, costing the UK economy an estimated £500 million each year.
Campylobacter cannot survive in the oxygen levels in the air, which forces the bacterium to adapt for survival in the food
chain. One such a survival strategy is to form a biofilm, whereby the bacteria stick to a surface and encase themselves
in a sticky 'slime' which protects them.

In research published in the journal Applied and Environmental Microbiology, IFR researchers have found that
Campylobacter will readily form a biofilm under laboratory conditions, and that, when the bacteria were left in air, they
respond to these stressful conditions by more rapidly forming this biofilm.

Campylobacter cells were also shed from the biofilm under environmental conditions, showing that a biofilm is a
reservoir of cells that can subsequently enter the food chain, potentially leading to instances of food poisoning.
"Campylobacter can clearly sense their stressful environment and try to protect themselves by making a biofilm. Now we
need to focus in on those systems that actual sense the stress, in particular, the oxygen sensors" commented Dr. Mark
Reuter.

"While biofilms are well established in the lifestyle and success of other pathogenic bacteria, their role in the lifestyle of
Campylobacter was still unclear. We now have developed a model where the biofilm plays a central role in the
transmission of Campylobacter via the food chain, and this may lead to new antimicrobial approaches, like disrupting the
biofilm matrix or prevention of biofilm formation." commented Dr. Arnoud van Vliet.

By understanding how Campylobacter survives in the environment, this research may suggest novel ways that the food
industry can eliminate these bacteria from the food chain or prevent them from entering it at all.

The IFR is an institute of the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), and this research,
which was funded by the BBSRC, is very timely, as the key UK funders are for the first time developing a joint
Campylobacter strategy, a key activity underpinning the Cross Government Research and Innovation Strategy for Food
published earlier this year.

About Campylobacter

Campylobacter is a bacterium that is the most common cause of food poisoning in the UK (over 500,000 cases/year)
and in many countries. It is found mainly in poultry but also in red meat, unpasteurised milk and untreated water.
Although it does not normally grow in food, it spreads easily, so that only a few bacteria in a piece of undercooked
chicken could cause illness. Campylobacter infections do not usually cause vomiting, but diarrhoea can be severe and
bloody, with abdominal cramps. Normally the treatment is rest and fluid replacement, with medication only being given
for severe cases.